Tag Archives: ballistic armor

Proper Fit of Body Armor

by Woodsbum

Now that I have body armor and have been wearing it around a bit to see how well it wears, a thought kept creeping into my head, “Is this expense really fit properly and am I wearing it correctly?”

When I was in the military we wore flak jackets. Considering it was simply a vest that you put on, it was quite difficult to wear it incorrectly. Even the new military armor systems are difficult to wear incorrectly because they are also vest type construction that offers very little adjustment.

Here is the article that Gunguy found and sent to me:


Body armor is meant to keep you in the fight.  It should protect the vital organs which, if hit, would quickly take you down and prevent you from putting rounds on target. The possibility of saving your life is a secondary benefit of body armor.  With this purpose in mind we must understand those structures we need to protect which we can realistically protect while still maintaining a great degree of mobility.

Our primary concern is the heart and the large blood vessels which sprout from the top of the heart: the superior vena cava, the arch of the aorta and the pulmonary trunk. These vessels are collectively referred to as “the great vessels”.

The heart is important for its obvious function of providing pressure to circulate blood to the lungs via the right side of the heart and then on to the body via the left side of the heart.  Within the body the heart lies left of center, with its apex near the left nipple.  Thus, while fitting a plate as a general guideline we must select a plate which will cover the nipples to ensure the entire heart is protected.  Note that in some individuals the nipples may be more lateral than the apex of the heart.

The great vessels of the heart lie directly behind the uppermost portion of the sternum, known as the manubrium, and sit directly on top of the heart.  The great vessels wrap and twist around each other, making it likely that a hit to one will likely perforate another and result in massive hemorrhage.

Arguably the most important of the three great vessels in the Aorta, due to its size and high velocity of blood flow, 5 liters a minute.  The average 165 pound man has 5 liters of blood in his body and thus can completely bleed out within one minute if the Aorta is dramatically perforated.  Loss of consciousness can occur with less than 40% of blood loss, approximately two liters, and thus can occur in well under a minute.

Of equal importance to the heart is the respiratory diaphragm, the muscle which, when contracting, allows you to decrease air pressure within your lungs and thus draw in air. Destroy the diaphragm and you destroy one’s ability to breath.  Protecting the entirety of the respiratory diaphragm is not realistic, but the majority of it will be protected by a properly fitted plate.  The diaphragm is dome shaped, following the bottom of your rib cage and doming up into the chest cavity.

Protecting the vertebral column goes without saying -we wish to protect as much of this as possible without sacrificing mobility. Unfortunately, protecting the entire vertebral column is not realistic at this time.

It is important to note that a hit to the lungs may prove to eventually be lethal through blood loss or tension pneumothorax, but is not nearly as lethal as quickly as a hit to the heart and its great vessels. The liver and kidneys, while highly vascular, are also not immediately incapacitating and thus are of secondary concern.  The rest of the viscera in your abdomen are of tertiary concern.

Finding Balance:  Protection vs Mobility

When properly fitted a chest plate should not impinge on the anterior deltoids or pectoralis major muscles when punching out with a handgun or carbine.  Any impingement on the shoulder may create discomfort, premature fatigue and possibly even aggravate certain shoulder conditions.  In some cases too large of a plate may prevent a shooter from assuming an ideal hold on their weapon.  This, and even discomfort, can translate to misses down range.

A slightly smaller chest plate which fits with no impingement while punching out will not expose the heart as long as it still covers the nipples.  A smaller plate will translate to a small increase in exposure of peripheral lung tissue and abdominal viscera, but these are organs which can take a hit without immediate consequences to the shooter.  As stated previously, a shot to the lung, liver or kidney is not immediately fatal.  This should be considered when choosing a plate that fits properly.

NORNAVEOD i Meymaneh i Afghanistan

Positioning of the Front/Chest plate

The top of your chest plate should be at the level of your suprasternal notch, which is also known as the jugular notch.  Tracing the sternum with a finger superiorly, the soft spot you reach at the top of the sternum is the suprasternal notch.  If you press in with your finger and choke yourself you are in the right spot.  The chest plate should ride at least level with the top of your sternum while standing.  An easy way to ensure this is to place a finger in your suprasternal notch and position the plate such that the top of the plate touches the bottom of your finger.

Reference image (anterior view)

  • Red is your heart and related blood vessels
  • Dark Grey/Yellow is a properly positioned plate.
  • The sternum and clavicle are white with black outline


Positioning of rear/back plate

Find the most prominent bony eminence at the base of your neck. This is your vertebral eminence. Count down two bony spinousus (or measure down about 1.5 inches) and that should be above the level of the superior aspect of your sternum and thus level with the top of your front plate. Positioning at least this high will ensure your entire heart and the great vessels are protected from a shot to the back.  The front and back plate should be level with one another when viewed from the side.

The vertebral eminence is marked in the diagram below in blue.


Side and Shoulder Plates

Side plates are intended to protect the highly vascular elements of your abdomen. They were introduced to prevent troops from bleeding out in the chopper on the way to the field hospital. Side plates were not necessarily intended to protect the heart, but if you wear them high up into your armpits you can protect some of the lower portion of your heart.

Protecting your heart from a shot to side is accomplished by shoulder plates, such as the ones manufactured by Crye Precision.


To Sum it Up

  • Chest/Front plate:  Even with top of the sternum while standing and covering the entirety of each nipple.  For best fit, the plate should not impinge on the shoulder when presenting a weapon.
  • Back/Rear plate:  Should lie no lower than an inch below your vertebral prominence.  A back plate one size larger than a chest plate is optimal.
  • Side plates:  The higher they ride the better.

An example of proper chest plate positioning


An example of improper chest plate positioning


Hopefully, this article will help you to understand how hard plates work. Obviously, you will not be walking around like a juggernaut and completely bulletproof from toenail to beanie. You also don’t want to go into a dangerous situation in a Speedo and flip flops. Find what works for you and just make sure you wear it as intended.

Good luck!!!!

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Body Armor – Part 2

by Woodsbum

This is the second installment of my Body Armor series. Body Armor – Part 1 can be found here.

Body armor is a very odd thing for most civilians to have. There is even legislation presented to keep civilians from possessing any sort of armor. I find this quite disturbing considering the world that has been created for us to live in. On the weekends, I work as a bouncer at a bar and I am also a hunter’s education instructor. Both these activities present me with the distinct possibility of physical injury either at the hands of a disgruntled drunk (or violent socialist Canadian race baiter like last weekend – long story) or new shooter that just doesn’t have the motor skills to be completely safe. Either way body armor is a great way to ensure I at least am taking precautions against injury or death.

Finding the right body armor to fit your needs is difficult. As I presented in my first installment of the series, you need to find the right armor with the right fit at the right price. Setting up my plate armor was a very expensive process, but I did not want to spend that much on soft armor. Ultimately, my main criteria was as follows:

  • Must be concealable. I already have an outer wear body armor that is big, bulky and not that easy to hide. This armor needed to be lightweight and very easy to be overlooked in a crowd.
  • Was available at a reasonable price. I already have over $750 in my plate armor setup with all the pouches and accessories. This needed to be cheap and complete upon receipt.
  • Was not bulk in any fashion. Because I wanted something so concealable and hard to detect, all but the very expensive sets of Level IIIa armor were off the table. Level II seemed to be my best bet although it doesn’t stop all the pistol calibers. When thinking about it I didn’t think that the lack of coverage was worth the extra bulk and lack of concealment.

What I ended up with after a whole bunch of evaluation and weighing options was a set of police surplus armor from Bulletproofme.com. I did look at other sites and sources such as Body Armor Outlet and Bulletsafe. Their products are great, but I really needed to keep price down as much as possible and needed into a set that was going to fit without a whole lot of overlap. The guys at Bulletproofme did a great job of finding something that fit well, can easily be concealed, and isn’t cost restrictive.

This is the set I ended up with.

First Choice Level II armor

First Choice Level II armor

My only complaints are with the carrier color and the velcro straps that are supposed to hold it in place. These two straps are around 12 inches long or more so the front and back are not fully retained in place. The front seems to move separately from the back and thus end up bunching funny. This makes it quite uncomfortable to wear.

As for color, I prefer black or foliage colors. This can be fixed with money and/or time. The only thing that does need to be fixed sooner than later are the velcro straps that hold at the sides. I do have my mother making me a shorter and wider set of straps that will definitely hold the vest onto my frame much better. Here is a good look at the straps.

Velcro straps

Velcro straps

The meat of this vest are the ballistic inserts. These are definitely used, but luckily don’t have the normal funk smell that seriously used inserts have. I am not sure if they soaked them in Febreze or they just didn’t get that funky, but luckily they don’t smell.



The vest came with a trauma pad at the sternum. This is probably a good thing, although I find it interesting that the trauma pad is on the outside of the soft armor. I am not sure why this is the case, but I will go with it since that is how the instructions read.

Trauma pad

Trauma pad

Now many people will wonder why I went with police surplus that was about 10 years old. If you read this abstract some light might be shined upon why I chose surplus. I find it interesting that the only places I can find this article are fairly well buried or the original links are no longer valid. I can see how police departments will get rid of armor once the warranty period is expired, but this older armor seems to be still serviceable for those of us who will not be using it every day.

Now another tidbit of information is that First Choice Armor is no longer around. They ended up getting sued and shut down by a government law suit around 2013. The building is now an adult day care center. This does concern me a bit, but on the other hand this product was never named in the suit with regard to the use of Zylon and it was made after they discontinued the use of that product. What is even more interesting is that most soft armor manufacturers used Zylon in their vests from the 1990’s through 2005. At least I don’t have one of those that was recalled.

The way I am looking at it is as such: I bought a vest that is used and is not on a recall list anywhere. There is research from federal organizations that say that 10 and 11 year old armor functioned just as well as brand new armor. I don’t see why I should worry, especially since I am keeping it in my closet 99.9% of the time.

The next installment of my series of what and why I bought certain items will be completed once my new plates arrive in the mail. I ordered AR500 plates to increase the coverage of protection. My previous plates are only 12×10 where as the new ones are the extra large size (14×11).

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